About arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid

What is arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid?

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, formerly known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is the most common type of arthritis in children under the age of 16.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis can cause persistent joint pain, swelling and stiffness. Some children may experience symptoms for only a few months, while others have symptoms for many years.

Some types of juvenile idiopathic arthritis can cause serious complications, such as growth problems, joint damage and eye inflammation. Treatment focuses on controlling pain and inflammation, improving function, and preventing damage.

What are the symptoms for arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid?

Juvenile idiopathic Arthritis can affect one joint or many. There are several different subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, but the main ones are systemic, oligoarticular and polyarticular. Which type your child has depends on symptoms, the number of joints affected, and if a Fever and rashes are prominent features.

Like other forms of arthritis, juvenile idiopathic Arthritis is characterized by times when symptoms flare up and times when symptoms may be minimal.

What are the causes for arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid?

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis occurs when the body's immune system attacks its own cells and tissues. It's not known why this happens, but both heredity and environment seem to play a role.

What are the treatments for arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid?

Treatment for juvenile idiopathic arthritis focuses on helping your child maintain a normal level of physical and social activity. To accomplish this, doctors may use a combination of strategies to relieve pain and swelling, maintain full movement and strength, and prevent complications.


The medications used to help children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis are chosen to decrease pain, improve function and minimize potential joint damage.

Typical medications include:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These medications, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve), reduce pain and swelling. Side effects include stomach upset and, much less often, kidney and liver problems.
  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Doctors use these medications when NSAIDs alone fail to relieve symptoms of joint pain and swelling or if there is a high risk of damage in the future.

    DMARDs may be taken in combination with NSAIDs and are used to slow the progress of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The most commonly used DMARD for children is methotrexate (Trexall, Xatmep, others). Side effects of methotrexate may include nausea, low blood counts, liver problems and a mild increased risk of infection.

  • Biologic agents. Also known as biologic response modifiers, this newer class of drugs includes tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, such as etanercept (Enbrel, Erelzi, Eticovo), adalimumab (Humira), golimumab (Simponi) and infliximab (Remicade, Inflectra, others). These medications can help reduce systemic inflammation and prevent joint damage. They may be used with DMARDs and other medications.

    Other biologic agents work to suppress the immune system in slightly different ways, including abatacept (Orencia), rituximab (Rituxan, Truxima, Ruxience), anakinra (Kineret) and tocilizumab (Actemra). All biologics can increase the risk of infection.

  • Corticosteroids. Medications such as prednisone may be used to control symptoms until another medication takes effect. They are also used to treat inflammation when it is not in the joints, such as inflammation of the sac around the heart.

    These drugs can interfere with normal growth and increase susceptibility to infection, so they generally should be used for the shortest possible duration.


Your doctor may recommend that your child work with a physical therapist to help keep joints flexible and maintain range of motion and muscle tone.

A physical therapist or an occupational therapist may make additional recommendations regarding the best exercise and protective equipment for your child.

A physical or occupational therapist may also recommend that your child make use of joint supports or splints to help protect joints and keep them in a good functional position.


In very severe cases, surgery may be needed to improve joint function.

What are the risk factors for arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid?

Some forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis are more common in girls.

Is there a cure/medications for arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid?

There is no cure for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, but there are medications that can help treat the symptoms.

1. The first step in treating juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is to control the inflammation that occurs in the joints.

2. Your doctor may prescribe a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) like ibuprofen or naproxen or a corticosteroid like prednisone. These drugs are designed to reduce swelling and pain and improve joint function, but they can also have side effects.

3. Taking too many NSAIDs can cause stomach ulcers or bleeding from the stomach or intestines while taking prednisone over time can cause muscle weakness, high blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, weight gain, and mood changes.

4. Other drugs that may be prescribed include methotrexate or a biologic therapy such as infliximab (Remicade). These drugs work by reducing your immune system's response to certain triggers like stress or infection. They're very effective at controlling inflammation in your joints but have some serious side effects, so they should only be used when other treatments aren't working well enough.

Other medications include:

1. Corticosteroids: These are the most common medications used to treat arthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. They work by slowing down the immune system, which reduces inflammation and pain. Corticosteroids can be taken orally or injected into the body.

2. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs): These are a class of medications that treat rheumatoid arthritis by slowing down or preventing the immune system from attacking joints in the body. DMARDs include methotrexate (also called MTX), leflunomide, sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), and gold salts.

3. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): These meds relieve symptoms of arthritis by reducing inflammation and pain in your joints. NSAIDs include ibuprofen (Advil) and naproxen sodium (Aleve).

Joint pain and stiffness,Stiffness, swelling, and warmth in the joints,Swelling in other parts of the body, such as the tendons, muscles, or eyes
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis,Osteoarthritis,Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD),Lupus,Fibromyalgia

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